Make-Whole Calls (MWC):
Make-whole calls (MWC) first appeared in the bond markets in the mid-1990s and have become commonplace ever since. In fact, MWCs have become more commonplace in corporate bonds than their counterpart the traditional par call. Although this type of call option is infrequently exercised by the issuer, it may provide significant advantages to the bondholder, as well as to the issuer.
At the most basic level a MWC, when exercised by the issuer, provides an investor with a redemption price that is the greater of the following:
- Par value, or
- A price that corresponds to the specific yield spread over a stated benchmark such as a comparable Treasury security (plus accrued interest)
A make-whole call provides a form of protection, as implied by the name, because it requires the investor to at least, “be made whole” (par value) and can be viewed as a form of downside protection.
Difference between a MWC and a Traditional Call:
MWCs are quoted in a spread to a predetermined Treasury security with a similar maturity; for example a 10-year corporate bond would likely be matched to a 10-year Treasury. This differs from a traditional call option that has its call price either fixed or predetermined according to a call schedule. Whereas a traditional call can only occur after a specified period of time, it should be noted that a MWC can be exercised at any time. Additionally, as the spread between the MWC bond and its benchmark Treasury narrows, the MWC price can continue to rise without a ceiling. Bonds that have a traditional call effectively have a price limit, or ceiling, as investors will be unlikely to purchase a bond for more than its call price once the call date draws near.
An Example of a Make-whole Call:
Current Price: $115.34
Make Whole Spread: +20bp
If the reference Treasury (maturing 2/15/27) is currently yielding 2.89%, a +20bp spread over equals 3.09%, which translates to a price of $118.84. The Make Whole Call is the greater of $100.00 or $118.84, so if exercised, the investor would receive $118.84.
Since the Make Whole call is spread to the Treasury most closely matching the time to maturity at the time the call occurs, it cannot be predicted (it is a moving target); however, the call price will be the greater of the calculated Make Whole Call price or par.
Summary of a Make-Whole Call:
|Item||Make-whole Call||Traditional Call|
|Call Price||The call price will change as Treasury yield change. As the spread narrows the price will increase. Conversely, as the spread widens the price will decrease.
The call price will never be below par.
|Call price is fixed|
|When can I Be Called?||Callable anytime, although usually during a restricting period such as a merger, takeover, etc.||Predetermined according to a schedule.|
|Is this Common?||Many corporate bonds, some municipal bonds and preferred securities have MWC provisions.||Some bonds have both traditional and MWCs together.|
There are risks involved with this strategy including, but not limited to, changes in interest rates, liquidity, credit quality, volatility and duration. Past performance is no assurance of future results. Investors should discuss the risks inherent in bonds with their Raymond James Financial Advisor.
The data and information contained herein was obtained from sources considered to be reliable, but RJA does not guarantee its accuracy and/or completeness. Neither the information nor any opinions expressed constitute a solicitation for the purchase or sale of any security referred to herein. Investors should discuss the risks inherent in bonds with their Raymond James Financial Advisor. Risks include, but are not limited to, changes in interest rates, liquidity, credit quality, volatility, and duration. Past performance is no assurance of future results.Next